Iranian authorities curtail the rights of freedom of expression, association, and assembly by arresting and imprisoning on vague charges professors, students, journalists, human rights defenders, and others who voice dissent. Torture and other mistreatments of detainees remain common and has been committed with impunity; prison conditions are harsh. Unfair trials continue, resulting in some cases with death sentences. Dual citizens, women, and members of ethnic and religious minorities face discrimination both in law and in practice. 

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